Author(s): Ekaterina Kim; Knut V. Hoyland
Linked Author(s): Knut Hoyland
Keywords: No Keywords
Abstract: Knowledge of scale transition is important because tests are often conducted on miniature ice specimens. The specific energy absorption of laboratory-grown freshwater ice during crushing at small scale is compared with that of lake ice and iceberg ice during crushing at medium scale. The main objective of this study is to test whether the specific energy (energy per unit mass of crushed ice) necessary to turn solid ice into crushed (pulverized) material can be considered as a size- and scale-independent characteristic. The study is limited to the specific energy absorption during the local ice crushing process (fragmentation). The results indicate that the specific energy of the ice crushing process is independent of the interaction scenario; both drop-weight tests and indentation tests give similar energies. The specific energy of the ice crushing process depends on the geometry, size and ice temperature. If the ice grains are sufficiently small compared with the penetration depth and indenter size, and the sample size (width and thickness) is sufficiently large compared with the indenter size and the penetration depth, the specific energy is a size- and scale-independent characteristic. However, if the grain size is sufficiently large compared with the indenter (and sample) size and the penetration depth, the specific energy exhibits a multi-scale character. The information presented in this work has a wide range of applicability, from the development of physical laws for an ice-structure interaction to numerical modeling of the ice crushing process using the finite element method with a focus on the processes of energy dissipation.