Author(s): Tanuspong Pokavanich; Yousef Alosairi; Reimer De Graaff; Robin Morelissen; W Ilbert Verbruggen; Kholood Al-Rifaie; Taqi Altaf; Turki Al-Said
Linked Author(s): Robin Morelissen
Keywords: Arabian Gulf; Hydrodynamic; Water quality; Kuwait; Delft3D
Abstract: A three-dimensional Hydro-Environmental model of the Arabian Gulf (AG) was developed based on Delft3D-FLOW and Delft3D-WAQ model. The developed models were forced by realistic forcing boundary conditions includes validated set of tidal constituents developed by Deltares, The Netherland, temporal and spatial variable wind and meteorological data from ECMWF ERA-Interim, temporal varying water temperature and salinity profiles from My Ocean model and temporal river discharge data. The model was validated against field measurement data offshore of Kuwait. The developed model could reproduce overall hydrodynamic and water quality features of the AG realistically in three-dimension. Simulation results suggested strong zonal and seasonal variability of the hydrodynamic and water quality conditions. Waters at the northwestern part of the gulf were heavier and the density gradient along the bay' s longitudinal axis was stronger in winter compared to summer. This features contribute to enhance density-driven circulation and interactions between the northwestern part and the central part of the gulf. Simulated dissolved oxygen showed clear seasonal trend having overall higher dissolved oxygen in winter compared to summer. At the summer dissolved oxygen at shallow regions at the northwestern and along the Arabian coast were low (< 5 mg/l) .Simulated nutrient concentrations suggested that nitrogen might be a limiting factor for phytoplankton growth of the gulf. Simulated chlorophyll-a concentration showed overall year-round low concentration (low phytoplankton abundance) at most part of the gulf except the river mouths and near the Strait of Hormuz regions. The model produced AG-scale phytoplankton blooms during spring season when significant higher chlorophyll-a concentrations were simulated.